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What are the clinical symptoms and manifestations of glomerulonephritis?

1, lead to glomerular nephritis edema: glomerular filtration rate decreased, resulting in water and sodium retention; protein from urine loss caused by the decrease of plasma colloid osmotic pressure, resulting in water retention; renin secretion, causing secondary aldosterone secretion, renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption factors increase, is the cause of renal edema. The only light weight (occult edema), severe systemic edema, and abdominal cavity effusion (chest).
2: lead to proteinuria and glomerular nephritis nephritis, increased glomerular capillary wall permeability, plasma albumin by membrane filtration, and proteinuria, so glomerulonephritis is the most important characteristic of proteinuria.
3, glomerulonephritis leads to tube type urine: tube type is formed in the urine protein coagulation and precipitation, so in nephritis, urine should have tube type. It should be noted that there is no protein in the urine, but can not reflect the glomerular lesions. On the contrary, there is no sign of glomerular lesions without tube and protein. Only when there is both protein and tube in the urine, it is suggested that glomerular lesions.
4, glomerulonephritis leads to high blood pressure: the kidney through the regulation of water and sodium metabolism, affecting the effective circulation of blood volume, while the production of renin, an effect of renin angiotensin aldosterone system and lead to high blood pressure. The incidence of hypertension was 33.3%, and the incidence of uremia was about 84%.
5, glomerular nephritis leads to anemia: renal anemia is often caused by water retention due to dilution; severe glomerular lesions, erythropoietin and anemia. Anemia is normal, normal pigment anemia.
6, glomerular nephritis leads to hypoxemia and uremia: it is the glomerular lesions to the end of the renal dysfunction, but not all patients with glomerulonephritis.
The pathological change of glomerulonephritis is that the renal volume can be increased more than normal. The pathological type of glomerulonephritis is proliferative glomerulonephritis.
Severe glomerulonephritis, proliferation and infiltration of cells can make the capillary lumens oppression capillary loops, or occlusion, and damage the glomerular filtration membrane can appear, hematuria, proteinuria and urinary tube; and the glomerular filtration rate decreased, the soluble matter on water and nitrogen (including metabolites, inorganic salt) the decreased excretion of water sodium retention, then caused the extracellular fluid volume increased, so clinically, edema, oliguria, systemic circulatory congestion such as dyspnea, liver, venous pressure increased higher. The renal tubular lesions were not obvious, but there was edema and focal inflammatory cell infiltration in renal interstitium.

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