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Symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome can be onset at any age, but mainly in infant and children, no significant gender differences, but the majority of adults are female, which may be related to pregnancy prone to hus, usually sporadic, the disease occurs in the four seasons of the year, but the peak is late spring and early summer, the severity of the disease is different, and there are different variability. This article describes the symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome

Symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome:

1, prodromal symptoms: typical prodromal symptoms,  with gastrointestinal symptoms as the main performance, such as loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, with moderate fever, there are a few serious blood, 1/3 had symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in children, this period is generally 1 to 7 days, and then after 1 ~ 5 days without symptoms into acute period.

2, acute manifestations: hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure are typical manifestations in acute phase.

(1) hemolytic anemia: hemolytic anemia showed short-term hemoglobin decreased significantly, the degree of anemia and the severity of acute renal failure are inconsistent, children showed pale, jaundice generally not obvious, or only the face was lemon yellow, early disease Hemolysis crisis can be repeated within 2 weeks, hemoglobin can be reduced within a few hours 30 ~ 50g / L, check the peripheral blood leukocytes and reticulocytes increased blood smear visible abnormal red blood cells and red blood cell fragments, red blood cells can be triangular, Armor type, prickle type, blood non-conjugated bilirubin, shortened life span of red blood cells, an average of 3 days, anemia continued to recover after 1 to 3 weeks.

(2) thrombocytopenia: 90% of patients with thrombocytopenia, mainly due to the increase of peripheral damage , the platelet survival time was shortened from 7 to 10 days to 1.5 to 5 days , the platelet count was generally continued for 7 to 14 days , and few recovered slowly . Due to the reduction of platelets , there was a tendency for hemorrhage , which manifested nasal hemorrhage , gingival bleeding , skin stasis point or small hematoma , hematemesis , hematochezia , hemoptysis , eyeground hemorrhage , and even cerebral hemorrhage .

(3) Acute renal failure: renal damage caused by varying severity of acute renal failure, light only temporary urine output decreased mild renal dysfunction, sometimes referred to as laboratory hemolysis uremic syndrome, severe cases were less Urine type, oliguria sustainable 2 days to 8 weeks, urine examination of protein, red, white blood cells and tubular, at the same time there are other symptoms of acute renal failure, such as azotemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acid Poisoning, high blood volume, high blood pressure and so on.

As a result of hemolysis caused by the destruction of a large number of red blood cells uric acid, it is prone to hyperuricemia, in some cases due to severe anemia, oliguria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalance induced congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest and death, the incidence of HUS chronic renal failure is 10% to 40%. Long-term. 

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